In 1880, Father Marmand of the Paris Foreign Missionary Society constructed a temporary church in Dozaki, facing the seashore. After that, the newly appointed Father Pelu designed the present church in a full-scale, redbrick, gothic style. A carpenter from the island, Nohara Yokichi, served as the head carpenter and did the construction work. He was assisted by Tetsukawa Yosuke (who at that time was still an apprentice).

Dozaki church is dedicated to St. John of Goto, the only one of the 26 Martyrs of Japan who came from Goto. Relics of these martyrs are enshrined within the central altar. They were brought to Japan from Manila by Father Petitjean.

Many of those churches on the Goto islands which face the seashore used conch shells to tell people when it was time for Mass. When the Christians who lived near Dozaki church heard this sound, they would come by small boats and gather there.