おらしょ こころ旅

Biography & Glossary

Amakusa Shiro Amakusa Shiro, also known by his real name Masuda Shiro, is said to have fought as the leader of the peasants' rebel forces of the Shimabara-Amakusa Rebellion at the young age of only 16.
Arima Harunobu Arima Harunobu, the feudal lord of the Hizen Arima clan, succeeded to head of the family in 1571 and resided at Hinoe Castle. In 1580, he was baptized by Valignano and became a Kirishitan Daimyo (Christian feudal lord.) In 1582, he sent his cousin Chijiwa Miguel as a member of the first Japanese embassy to Europe, known as the Tensho embassy. In 1587, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi proclaimed the expulsion of Christian priests, Harunobu protected missionaries in his territory.
Augustin Halbout Augustin Halbout came to Japan in 1889 as a Paris Foreign Missions Society missionary. After serving in Nagasaki, Amami, and Oita, he was assigned to Sakitsu in Amakusa in 1927. For the next 17 years, he was the parish priest of the Sakitsu Church. He built the current church on the former site of the village headman's house, where the E-Bumi (stepping on holy images) was done during the ban on Christianity.
Alessandro Valignano Alessandro Valignano, as the Visitator General for all the Eastern missions of the Society of Jesus, led the early Christian community in Japan. He visited Japan three times from 1579. On his second visit to Japan in 1590 as an official Ambassador of the Viceroy of India, he had an audience with Toyotomi Hideyoshi, accompanied by the Tensho Embassy (the first Japanese embassy to Europe) which returned to Japan. In his mission to Japan, he showed innovative policies including adapting to Japanese customs and establishing educational institutions such as seminaries.
Bishop A bishop is a person appointed by the Pope to oversee a specific area. The area controlled by the bishop is called a diocese, and the building where the bishop lives and works is called a Bishop's Palace.
Blessing Blessing is a celebratory Mass in which people receive God's special grace.
Believer A believer is a general term for all who believe in Christianity, including priests, monks and nuns, and laity.
Baptism Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption into Christianity, and receiving a baptismal name (Christian name) such as "Mary" or "Francis."
Bastian Bastian was a Japanese evangelist who was active in the Sotome area during the period of the ban on Christianity. He left behind a church calendar (higuri), essential for keeping the faith alive, and prophecies that gave hope to the Senpuku Kirishitans (hidden Christians.) His achievements have been passed down from generation to generation by the people of Sotome, Urakami, and Goto.
Bateren Bateren refers to the clergy, including priests and missionaries, when Christianity was introduced to Japan. The word is derived from the Portuguese word padre.
Blessed "Blessed" is a title given by the Pope in official recognition of the holiness of those who have devoted their lives to deep faith as martyrs and Christians. "Saint" is added to the linelist of saints, and a "blessed" is added to the linelist of blessed persons.
Bernard-Thadée Petitjean Bernard-Thadée Petitjean was a missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society. He landed in Ryukyu in 1860, Yokohama in 1862, and arrived in Nagasaki in August 1863, where he began construction of the Oura Cathedral and held the consecration in February 1865. Shortly after that, he encountered Senpuku Kirishitans in the Discovery of Hidden Christians.
Camillus Costanzo Camillus Costanzo, a missionary of the Society of Jesus, came to Japan in 1605. He was exiled to Macau in 1614 but secretly infiltrated Japan in 1621 to preach in the Hirado area. He was captured on Ukujima Island in 1622 and was martyred by burning to death in Tabira.
Church This website mainly uses church to mean a community of believers, but it can also refer to a church building.
Church building A church building refers to a place where believers gather for prayer and rituals.
Consecration of a church Consecration of a church refers to the ceremony of receiving God's blessing as an official church after completing a new church building.
Collegio The Collegio refers to a school for the training of clergy, founded by Valignano, the Visitator General of the Society of Jesus. It offered higher education in theology, religious studies, philosophy, natural sciences, Latin and others.
Confraria Confraria was a group or association formed by believers in each community before the ban on Christianity. They devoted their lives to strengthening their faith and providing services. During the hidden period, the underground organizations of Kirishitans were based on these groups or associations.
Christian mission A Christian mission is to spread the teachings of Christianity.
Choukata Choukata is a role that presides over ceremonies based on the church calendar in the faith-based organization of Senpuku Kirishitans (hidden Christians.)
Diocese The Catholic Church is territorially divided into dioceses, and the head of a diocese is called a bishop. A diocese is further divided into parishes, which have their respective heads.
Doctrine Doctrine consists of religious teachings.
Discovery of Hidden Christians The Discovery of Hidden Christians is an event in which several Senpuku Kirishitans (hidden Christians) in Urakami confessed their faith to a priest for the first time in about 250 years, in 1865, even when the ban on Christianity had not yet been lifted. This historical event happened at the Oura Cathedral built in the foreign settlement of Nagasaki.
Dejima Dejima (exit island) was an artificial island built in Nagasaki harbor in 1636 to house the Portuguese who came to Japan for segregation. After the Portuguese were expelled in 1639, the Dutch trading post was relocated there from Hirado in 1641.
Efumi E-Bumi is a method used to search for suspected Kirishitans (Christians), and force them to apostatize, by stepping on holy images, medals, crosses, etc., during the period of the ban on Christianity. The pictures or images stepped on were called Fumi-e (tread pictures.)
Francis Xavier Francis Xavier, one of the founders of the Society of Jesus, landed in Kagoshima in 1549. He introduced Christianity to Japan for the first time. The following year, he arrived in Hirado, Nagasaki Prefecture.
Father Father is a term used for a priest/minister of the Catholic Church.
Floral cross A floral cross is a design with the tip of the cross looking like a flower petal. It is often seen in the patterns of early church roof tiles.
Goro Shiki Aisles (passages) extend from the entrance to the altar in a church building. The highest-ceilinged central passage is called the nave, and the lower-ceilinged side passages are called the side aisles. When there is one side aisle on each side of the nave, it is called a Sanro Shiki (three-aisles structure), and when there are two side aisles on each side of the nave, it is called a Goro Shiki (five-aisles structure.)
Hymn A hymn is a song of praise to God in the Catholic Church.
Higuri Higuri is a church calendar based on the lunar calendar of 1634 used by Senpuku Kirishitans (hidden Christians.) It is also called the Bastian calendar because Bastian handed it down. It was used for Christmas, Easter, and other holidays and kept the faith alive during about 250 years of the ban on Christianity.
Jihi-no-kumi (Misericordia) The Misericordia, also known as Jihi-no-kumi, was a sodality that served to help the sick and the poor in the spirit of Christianity. Its headquarters was in Nagasaki. In Japanese, it was called the Jihi-no-Kumi (Mercy Group) or Jihi-Ya (Mercy House.) The group was a forerunner of Japan's charitable programs.
Joseph Ferdinand Marmand Joseph Ferdinand Marmand was a missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society. He came to Japan in 1876. After missionary works in Amami and Ryukyu, he was assigned to Shimogoto as parish priest in 1880. After serving in Iojima and Amami, in 1897 he was sent to Kuroshima where he was instrumental in constructing the Kuroshima Church.
Kakure Kirishitan Kakure Kirishitan (underground Christian) refers to those who did not return to Catholicism even after the lifting of the edicts banning Christianity in the 19th century but continued to follow the unique beliefs developed during the forbidden period.
Kirishitan Kirishitan, derived from a Portuguese word for a Christian, is a historical nominal designation meaning a follower of Christianity from its arrival in Japan until the early Meiji period.
Kuzure Kuzure is the destruction of the faith-based organization of Kirishitans (Christians) due to strict control or informing during the forbidden period. The term refers to large-scale arrests of Kirishitans in an area, including the Omura county kuruze, the first to fourth Urakami kuruze, and the Goto kuruze.
Konishi Yukinaga Konishi Yukinaga, born in Sakai, was baptized at an early age. After serving the Ukita clan, he became a direct vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. As Marshal of the Ships, he controlled the navy and was the most potent Kirishitan Daimyo (Christian feudal lord.) He was on the front line during the invasions of Korea, but was defeated and executed at the Battle of Sekigahara after returning to Japan.
Konchirisan Konchirisan, derived from Contrição in Portuguese, means contrition and is a way to repent for sins and ask for God's forgiveness. It is said that Senpuku Kirishitans (hidden Christians) chanted Konchirisan oratio at their homes after they had been compelled to E-Bumi (step on holy images.)
Luís de Almeida Luís de Almeida, a missionary of the Society of Jesus, first came to Japan in 1552 and carried out his missionary activities until his death in Amakusa in 1583. He was well versed in medicine and established a hospital in Funai ofin the Bungo region to introduce Western medicine to the Japanese.
Laity Laity are believers who are not priests or in religious orders.
Louis-Théodore Furet Louis-Théodore Furet, a missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, entered Ryukyu in 1855 and landed in Nagasaki in 1863. He returned to France in 1864 and came to Japan again in 1866, becoming a priest at the Yokosuka Ironworks the following year.
Luís Fróis Luís Fróis was a missionary of the Society of Jesus who came to Japan in 1563 and lived there until he died in Nagasaki in 1597. He left detailed records of Japan at that time, including his History of Japan.
Mission Station Mission station refers to a church where a priest does not reside in the church building but visits only for Mass.
Martyrdom Martyrdom is the act of choosing death and giving one's life to God rather than abandoning Christian faith and morals.
Missionary A missionary is a person who is sent to spread the teachings of Christianity.
Marc Marie de Rotz Marc Marie de Rotz, a missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, landed at Nagasaki as a diocesan bishop in 1868. After printing doctrinal books using lithography at Oura Cathedral, he was assigned as the parish priest of the Sotome area in 1879 and engaged in various welfare activities, including establishing an aid center. He also had a profound knowledge of architecture and was involved in the construction of Shitsu Church and Ono Church.
Maria Kannon Maria Kannon is a Buddhist statue of Kannon (Avalokitesvara or Goddess of Mercy) in the likeness of the Virgin Mary. It was worshiped by Senpuku Kirishitans (hidden Christians) during the period of the ban on Christianity. Most of the statues were made in China.
Mizukata Mizukata is a role of baptizer in the faith-based organization of Senpuku Kirishitans (hidden Christians). In the Sotome area, it is sometimes concurrently charged with Choukata. In Ikitsuki, Hirado, it is called Mizu no Yaku.
Médaille A médaille is a medal-like holy object that believers hold so as to be protected by the Virgin Mary and the saints.
Nave Nave refers to the central aisle from the entrance of a church to the main altar.
Nando-Gami Nando-gami (God in a closet) is a sacred object, such as a holy picture, a wooden tag, and holy water, secretly worshiped in a closet. The practice started in Ikitsuki, Hirado area from the time of the ban on Christianity. They were usually kept in a box and decorated several times a year for worship in the closet.
Otomo Sorin Otomo Sorin, the feudal lord of the Bungo province, protected Kirishitans (Christians), after having met with Francis Xavier during his visit to Japan in 1551. In 1559, Sorin was appointed as Kyushu Tandai, the local commissioner having jurisdiction and command authority ofover the Kyushu region. In 1578, he was baptized and became a Kirishitan Daimyo (Christian feudal lord.)
Omura Sumitada Omura Sumitada, the feudal lord of the Omura clan in the Hizen province, was adopted from the Arima family and succeeded to head of the Omura family in 1550. In 1561, he opened Yokoseura port in his territory to Portuguese ships. He was baptized and became the first Kirishitan Daimyo (Christian feudal lord) in Japan.
Oratio Oratio is a collective term for prayer chants of Latin/Portuguese origins introduced to Japan in the 16th century.
Oppression Repression is the suppression of an activity by a ruler through power. In the history of Christianity, repression refers to religious persecution using various means to compel people to quit or abandon their faith.
Order of Friars Minor The Order of Friars Minor is a Catholic order approved by the Pope, founded in Italy in the 13th century by Saint Francis of Assisi and eleven of his comrades.
Priest A priest is one of the offices of the Catholic clergy; referred to as "Father." A parish priest is entrusted with the parish by the bishop. Depending on the size of the parish, the priest may be assisted by a curate.
Parsonage A parsonage is a building where a priest lives.
Plaster Stucco is a building material used for bonding tiles and stones, filling in joints, and painting over walls, and is applied to the surfaces of the Oura Cathedral and Shitsu Church.
Pastoral care Pastoral care is teaching and guiding of the faithful by the clergy.
Pilgrimage Pilgrimage is to deepen one's faith by visiting churches and holy places such as martyrdom sites and places associated with saints and blessed persons; offering thanks and prayers; repenting for sins; and making amends. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of non-Christians who visit churches and holy places in search of comfort and healing.
Prudence-Seraphin-Barthelemy Girard A missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, Prudence-Seraphin-Barthelemy Girard, arrived in Ryukyu in 1855 and was appointed as the vicar apostolic of Japan in 1857. After leaving Ryukyu, he came to Japan around 1859 and founded the Yokohama Cathedral (EGLISE DU SACRE-COEUR) in 1862.
Paris Foreign Missions Society The Paris Foreign Missions Society is a missionary organization of the Catholic Church headquartered in Paris, France. It was involved in the reconstruction of the Catholic Church in Japan after the end of the Edo period.
Padre Padre is Father in Portuguese.
Pierre-Théodore Fraineau Pierre-Théodore Fraineau was a missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society and came to Japan in 1873. After working as a circuit missionary in Shimogoto, he became the head of the Latin Seminario in Oura. After working in Oita and other places, he was in charge of Goto again and became the parish priest of Urakami.
Religious order A religious order is an association of people who have come together with the same goal of devoting their lives to God. There are men's and women's religious orders.
Resurrection of Kirishitan The resurrection of Kirishitan refers to the fact that, after the Discovery of Hidden Christians, Senpuku Kirishitans confessed their faith, were re-baptized, and became Catholics.
Rosário A rosário (rosary) is a chain-like prayer instrument used in the Catholic Church. It consists of 6 large beads and 53 tiny beads connected by a chain to form a ring with a cross underneath. Also called a contas.
Society of Jesus The Society of Jesus is a Catholic order approved by the Pope. It was founded by Francis Xavier and companions in 1534.
Stable A stable refers to reproducing the nativity scene where Christ was born and is displayed in churches when Christmas is near.
Sanro Shiki Aisles (passages) extend from the entrance to the altar in a church building. The highest-ceilinged central passage is called the nave, and the lower-ceilinged side passages are called the side aisles. When there is one side aisle on each side of the nave, it is called a Sanro Shiki (three-aisle structure), and when there are two side aisles on each side of the nave, it is called a Goro Shiki (five-aisle structure.)
Shimabara-Amakusa Rebellion The Shimabara-Amakusa Rebellion was an uprising caused by an alliance of peasants in the southern part of Shimabara Peninsula and Amakusa Islands from 1637 to 1638. More than 20,000 people joined the rebel forces, with Amakusa Shiro as their commander-in-chief. They fought barricaded themselves in Hara Castle but were suppressed by the Shogunate forces.
Saint Saint is a title given by the Pope in official recognition of the holiness of those who have devoted their lives to deep faith as martyrs and Christians. A "saint" is added to the list of saints, and a "blessed" is added to the list of blessed persons.
Seminário A seminário is now a minor seminary giving a Christian education for training priests and the religious. In those days, music and painting were taught along with Latin at seminários.
Senpuku Kirishitan Senpuku Kirishitan (hidden Christians) lived ostensibly as Buddhists during the ban on Christianity but secretly carried on their faith.
Side aisle A side aisle is the part of a church building that runs parallel to both sides of the nave.
Takayama Ukon Takayama Ukon was a feudal warlord born in Takayama, Settsu province. He was baptized to become a Kirishitan (Christian) in 1564. He became the lord of Takatsuki Castle in 1573, and Christianity flourished in his territory. After he was exiled by Toyotomi Hideyoshi due to Bateren Tsuihorei (Edict expelling Jesuit missionaries) decreed in 1587, Takayama Ukon served several feudal lords of his former acquaintance. In 1614, he was exiled from Nagasaki to Manila by Tokugawa Ieyasu, where he died.
Takekomai Takekomai is a method of constructing the base of an earthen wall using woven thinly sliced bamboo and was used for the base of the walls of the Oura Cathedral. It consists of making small holes in the pillars, passing split bamboos horizontally, and assembling the bamboos vertically to cross each other. It is a valuable technique now that there are few earthen wall artisans.
Tenshudo Tenshudo (Cathedral) was a term used in China and Korea to describe Catholic churches and cathedrals. Foreign priests adopted it when they built church buildings in Yokohama and Nagasaki in the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Tensho embassy to Europe In 1582, four Japanese boys (Ito Mancio, Chijiwa Miguel, Nakaura Jurião, and Hara Martinho) were dispatched to Europe as the Tensho embassy on behalf of Omura Sumitada, Otomo Sorin, and Arima Harunobu, all Kirishitan Daimyos (Christian feudal lords.) Those boys had studied at the Arima Seminary, founded by an Italian priest, Father Valignano. They received a great welcome, including an audience with the Pope. They returned to Japan in 1590 after learning about Western music and printing techniques.
Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Ieyasu was born as the eldest son of the Matsudaira clan, the lords of Okazaki Castle. He allied with Oda Nobunaga and later became a vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. After Hideyoshi's death, he won the battle of Sekigahara and became the Shogun (a hereditary commander-in-chief in feudal Japan.) Although he was initially tolerant of Kirishitans (Christians), the Okamoto Daihachi Case in which Christians shook the feudal system led him to institute the policy banning on Christianity after 1612.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi Toyotomi Hideyoshi, born in Owari province, was a vassal of Oda Nobunaga. Hideyoshi succeeded Nobunaga after his death and established a unified government in Japan. In 1587, he decreed Bateren Tsuihorei (Edict expelling Jesuit missionaries), but it was was incomplete because he allowed the Nanban boeki (trade among Japan, Europe, and East to South East Asia.) In 1597, six Franciscans and twenty Japanese Kirishitans (Christians) were executed at Nishizaka in Nagasaki (Twenty-Six Martyrs of Japan.)
Twenty-Six Martyrs of Japan The Twenty-Six Martyrs of Japan was the first martyrdom case in Japan. People were executed for their Christian faith by the authority of the time. Twenty-six believers were arrested in Kyoto, Osaka, and other cities; were made to walk to Nagasaki; and were executed at Nishizaka on February 5, 1597. The event caused a great sensation in Europe, and the twenty-six were later canonized as saints.
Ukihashi Mondo Case The Ukihashi Mondo Case is a case in which Ukihashi Mondo, a former vassal of the Matsuura clan, complained to the Shogunate that the Matsuura clan or the Hirado domain was advocating for Kirishitans (Christians.) At the time, this was a significant issue concerning the clan's survival.
Yosuke Tetsukawa Yosuke Tetsukawa was a master builder and architect from Kamigoto. He received instruction in church architecture from Father Marc Marie de Rotz. Yosuke was later involved in constructing many church buildings on his own, mainly in Nagasaki.