The cause of the rebellion
A great number of Christian artefacts have been uncovered during archaeological excavations at Hara castle.
Many irregular-shaped crosses made of lead have been discovered during archaeological excavations at Hara. It seems that the rebels made these crosses from gun bullets after barricading themselves in Hara castle. Medals and rosary beads have also been found, as well as other Christian artefacts.
Regarding the cause of the rebellion, we cannot simply say that it happened because they were Christian. After the battle, the feudal lords who had fought on behalf of the shogunate had various ways of interpreting what had happened. For the shogunate, this was a Christian rebellion. However, others thought that the Matsukura clan, which had cruelly imposed such severe annual land taxes, had invited resistance and was the true cause of the rebellion.